Egypt’s infrastructure is relatively underdeveloped. The country is serviced by a network of over 64,000 kilometers (39,769 miles) of primary and secondary roads, 49,984 kilometers (31,060 miles) of which are paved. Despite the modernization of the road system in the 1980s, most roads remain in poor condition or under construction. With growing numbers of licensed automobiles in the 1990s, the road system, especially in urban areas, has become highly congested, and is a major safety concern.

According to the EIU Country Profile, “Egypt reports the highest incidence of traffic fatalities in the world: 44.1 deaths per 100,000 kilometers driven in 1994.” Egypt’s aging state-owned railway system, which has 9,400 kilometers of tracks (5,841 miles) is old by regional standards and in need of upgrade. The sector is slated for privatization. Cairo’s new metro system, opened in 1987, is one of the most heavily used systems in the world, carrying some 1.4 million passengers a day.

Egypt has a total of 90 airports. Egypt Air, the country’s official airline, carries some 4.6 million passengers, roughly 25 percent of international air traffic, and an estimated total of 87,240 metric tons of freight annually, but has a poor service record and is generally unreliable. Egypt has 3 major ports, at Alexandria, Port Said, and Suez, and 3,500 kilometers (2,175 miles) of waterways, divided between the Nile and the canals.

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